What is Nursing?
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in many specialties with differing levels of prescription authority. Nurses comprise the largest component of most healthcare environments; but there is evidence of international shortages of qualified nurses. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, and this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. Nurse practitioners are nurses with a graduate degree in advanced practice nursing. They are however permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings. Since the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing.
Nurses develop a plan of care, working collaboratively with physicians, therapists, the patient, the patient’s family, and other team members that focuses on treating illness to improve quality of life. In the United Kingdom and the United States, advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and other therapies, depending on individual state regulations. Nurses may help coordinate the patient care performed by other members of a multidisciplinary health care team such as therapists, medical practitioners, and dietitians. Nurses provide care both interdependently, for example, with physicians, and independently as nursing professionals.
What is Heart?
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body, while carrying metabolic waste such as carbon dioxide to the lungs. In humans, the heart is approximately the size of a closed fist and is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.
In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria and lower left and right ventricles. Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart. Fish, in contrast, have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers. In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow. The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.
The heart pumps blood with a rhythm determined by a group of pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node. These generate a current that causes contraction of the heart, traveling through the atrioventricular node and along the conduction system of the heart. The heart receives blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation, which enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae and passes to the right ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation−where the oxygen is used and metabolized to carbon dioxide. The heart beats at a resting rate close to 72 beats per minute. Exercise temporarily increases the rate, but lowers resting heart rate in the long term, and is good for heart health.
Working & Functioning of Heart:
How the Heart Works
Heart & Vascular
The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood continuously throughout the body. It is comprised of four chambers — the right and left atrium and the right and left ventricle.
The four chambers of the heart work together by alternately contracting and relaxing to pump blood throughout the heart. To accomplish this, the heart uses an electrical system to trigger a heartbeat. Essentially, the electrical system is the power source that makes all the heart’s functions possible.
Blood vessels lead in and out of the chambers, which receive and distribute blood throughout the body. The four chambers of the heart are connected by four valves — the tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral and aortic valves. These valves work like one-way doors, allowing blood to flow in only one direction.
Heart diagram showing blood circulationAs the heart beats, it pumps blood through a system of blood vessels called the circulatory system. The blood that these vessels carry is essential for the body to function. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to your body’s tissues, assists in the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products and promotes the overall health of the body’s tissues. There are three main types of vessels that make up this system:
How blood flow works
Blood enters the heart through two large veins, the inferior and superior vena cava, emptying into the right atrium. It flows from the right atrium through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps blood to the pulmonic valve, and the blood flows into the pulmonary artery and to the lungs. Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the heart via the pulmonary vein into the left atrium. From the left atrium, blood flows through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. From the left ventricle blood leaves the heart through the aortic valve and flows into the aorta and to the body.
Heart diagram of coronary artery functionThe heart muscle needs its own supply of oxygen and nutrients to pump properly. Although its chambers are full of blood, the heart receives no nourishment from this blood. The heart receives its own supply of blood through a network of arteries of the body known as the coronary arteries.
Functions of right and left coronary arteries
The coronary arteries wrap around the surface of the heart. The two main coronary arteries, the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery, branch off from the aorta. The right coronary artery supplies the right atrium and right ventricle. It branches into the posterior descending artery. The left coronary artery branches into the circumflex artery and the left anterior descending artery. The left coronary artery supplies the left atrium and the left ventricle.
Narrow coronary arteries
Collateral circulation is a network of tiny blood vessels that usually remain inactive. When coronary arteries narrow to the point that blood flow to the heart is limited, collateral vessels become enlarged and active. This process allows for blood flow around the blocked artery to the heart muscle.
The heart’s walls consist of three layers of tissue:
- Myocardium: This is the muscular tissue of the heart.
- Endocardium: This tissue lines the inside of the heart and protects the valves and chambers.
- Pericardium: This is a thin protective coating that surrounds the other parts.
- Epicardium: This protective layer consists mostly of connective tissue and forms the innermost layer of the pericardium.
3 Kinds of Exercises to keep your heart healthy:
What it does: Aerobic exercise improves circulation, which results in lowered blood pressure and heart rate, Stewart says. In addition, it increases your overall aerobic fitness, as measured by a treadmill test, for example, and it helps your cardiac output (how well your heart pumps). Aerobic exercise also reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes and, if you already live with diabetes, helps you control your blood glucose.
How much: Ideally, at least 30 minutes a day, at least five days a week.
What it does: Resistance training has a more specific effect on body composition, Stewart says. For people who are carrying a lot of body fat (including a big belly, which is a risk factor for heart disease), it can help reduce fat and create leaner muscle mass. Research shows that a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance work may help raise HDL (good) cholesterol and lower LDL (bad) cholesterol.
How much: At least two nonconsecutive days per week of resistance training is a good rule of thumb, according to the American College of Sports Medicine.
Stretching, Flexibility and Balance
What they do: Flexibility workouts, such as stretching, don’t directly contribute to heart health. What they do is benefit musculoskeletal health, which enables you to stay flexible and free from joint pain, cramping and other muscular issues. That flexibility is a critical part of being able to maintain aerobic exercise and resistance training, says Stewart.
How much: Every day and before and after other exercise.
Tips to keep your Heart healthy
1. Eliminate salt
Assuming you have an eating routine high in salt, almost certainly, your pulse could be high as well – and that implies you have an expanded danger of experiencing coronary illness or stroke. The suggested greatest day by day admission of salt is only 6g for grown-ups and 3g for kids (2.5g of salt is what could be compared to 1g of sodium). Chop somewhere near doing whatever it takes not to utilize any salt whatsoever at the table and decreasing the amount you use in cooking.
2. Eat less sugar
An excessive amount of sugar in your eating routine could prompt weight gain, which can raise your circulatory strain and lead to diabetes and coronary illness. On the off chance that you have a sweet tooth and can’t surrender sugar through and through, basically have new natural product with yoghurt rather than improved puddings and cakes.
3. Limit soaked fat
Eating an excess of soaked fat – found in spread, ghee, margarine, greasy meats, dairy fats and handled food sources like pies, cakes and cakes – is accepted to build cholesterol levels. So change to semi-skimmed milk and low-fat dairy food varieties rather than full-fat ones, pick lean cuts of meats and steam or barbecue as opposed to broiling.
4. Top off on leafy foods
Increment how much potassium in your eating regimen by eating something like five segments of foods grown from the ground a day (potassium can assist with bringing down your circulatory strain). The supplements in foods grown from the ground – including nutrients, minerals and fiber – may likewise assist with keeping your heart solid. Check out this interesting blog for more details here
5. Go for more fish
Sleek fish like pilchards, sardines, mackerel, salmon and new fish, are wealthy in omega-3 unsaturated fats, which are believed to be especially helpful for your heart since they further develop your cholesterol levels. Assuming that you’re a veggie lover you can get omega-3 fats from spinach, raw grain, pecans, flaxseed and flaxseed oil, soya and canola oil and pumpkin seeds.
6. Stop smoking
Smoking is one of the primary driver of cardiovascular sickness, and smokers are two times as prone to have a respiratory failure contrasted and the people who have never smoked. It harms the covering of your courses as well as lessens how much oxygen in your blood and raises your pulse.
7. Scale back liquor
Liquor can influence your heart by causing hypertension, strange heart rhythms and harm to the heart muscle. Yet, you don’t need to surrender it totally. Simply stick to current rules for moderate liquor drinking, which are a few units every day for ladies and three to four for men. Discover more by visiting the Drinkaware Website.
8. Get more exercise
Concentrates on show that individuals who aren’t extremely dynamic are bound to have a coronary failure than the people who are. Intend to get something like 150 minutes of moderate-power action seven days to bring down your danger of creating coronary illness. You can separate the 150 minutes any way you like. For example, have an energetic 30-minute walk each noon during the week.
9. Hold your weight down
In the event that you’re heavier than you ought to be, your danger of hypertension, elevated cholesterol and type 2 diabetes is better than average. Eating less sugar and immersed fat while scaling back liquor, eating more products of the soil and getting more exercise can all assist you with losing abundance pounds – and keep those pounds off in the long haul.
What are Heart Diseases?
Heart disease refers to any condition affecting the heart. There are many types, some of which are preventable.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Around 1 in 4 deathsTrusted Source in the U.S. occur due to heart disease, and the condition affects all genders as well as all racial and ethnic groups.
In this article, learn more about the types, causes, and symptoms of heart disease. This article also covers risk factors and treatment.
Heart disease refers to any condition affecting the cardiovascular system. There are several different types of heart disease, and they affect the heart and blood vessels in different ways.
The sections below look at some different types of heart disease in more detail.
Coronary artery disease
Coronary artery disease, also known as coronary heart disease, is the most common type of heart disease.
It develops when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become clogged with plaque. This causes them to harden and narrow. Plaque contains cholesterol and other substances.
As a result, the blood supply reduces, and the heart receives less oxygen and fewer nutrients. In time, the heart muscle weakens, and there is a risk of heart failure and arrhythmias.
When plaque builds up in the arteries, it is called atherosclerosis. Plaque in the arteries can rupture from blockages and cause blood flow to stop, which can lead to a heart attack.
Congenital heart defects
A person with a congenital heart defect is born with a heart problem. There are many types of congenital heart defects, includingTrusted Source:
Atypical heart valves: Valves may not open properly, or they may leak blood.
Septal defects: There is a hole in the wall between either the lower chambers or the upper chambers of the heart.
Atresia: One of the heart valves is missing.
Congenital heart disease can involve major structural issues, such as the absence of a ventricle or problems with unusual connections between the main arteries that leave the heart.
Arrhythmia refers to an irregular heartbeatTrusted Source. It occurs when the electrical impulses that coordinate the heartbeat do not work correctly. As a result, the heart may beat too quickly, too slowly, or erratically.
There are various types of arrhythmias, including:
Tachycardia: This refers to a rapid heartbeat.
Bradycardia: This refers to a slow heartbeat.
Premature contractions: This refers to an early heartbeat.
Atrial fibrillation: This is a type of irregular heartbeat.
A person may notice a feeling like a fluttering or a racing heart.
In some cases, arrhythmias can be life threatening or have severe complications.
In dilated cardiomyopathy, the heart chambers become dilated, meaning that the heart muscle stretches and becomes thinner. The most common causes of dilated cardiomyopathy are past heart attacks, arrhythmias, and toxins, but genetics can also play a role.
As a result, the heart becomes weaker and cannot pump blood properly. It can result in arrhythmia, blood clots in the heart, and heart failure.
It usually affects people aged 20–60 yearsTrusted Source, according to the AHA.
Also known as heart attack, myocardial infarction involves an interruption of the blood flow to the heart. This can damage or destroy part of the heart muscle.
The most common cause of heart attack is plaque, a blood clot, or both in a coronary artery. It can also occur if an artery suddenly narrows or spasms.
Are there different types of heart attack? Learn more here.
When a person has heart failure, their heart is still workingTrusted Source but not as well as it should be. Congestive heart failure is a type of heart failure that can occur from problems with the pumping or relaxing function.
Heart failure can result from untreated coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, arrhythmias, and other conditions. These conditions can affect the heart’s ability to pump or relax properly.
Heart failure can be life threatening, but seeking early treatment for heart-related conditions can help prevent complications.
This condition usually develops when a genetic problem affects the heart muscle. It tends to be an inherited condition.
The walls of the muscle thicken, and contractions become harder. This affects the heart’s ability to take in and pump out blood. In some cases, an obstruction can occur.
There may be no symptoms, and many people do not receive a diagnosis. However, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can worsen over time and lead to various heart problems.
Anyone with a family history of this condition should ask for screening, as receiving treatment can help prevent complications.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the main cause of cardiac deathTrusted Source among young people and athletes under 35 years old, according to the AHA.
Some signs and symptoms that could indicate heart attack include:
arm, jaw, back, or leg pain
a choking sensation
an irregular heartbeat
Heart attack can lead to cardiac arrest, which is when the heart stops and the body can no longer function. A person needs immediate medical attention if they have any symptoms of a heart attack.
If cardiac arrest occurs, the person will needTrusted Source:
immediate medical help (call 911)
immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation
a shock from an automated external defibrillator, if available
Causes and risk factors
Heart disease develops when there is:
damage to all or part of the heart
a problem with the blood vessels leading to or from the heart
a low supply of oxygen and nutrients to the heart
a problem with the rhythm of the heart
In some cases, there is a genetic cause. However, some lifestyle factors and medical conditions can also increase the risk. These include:
high blood pressure
a high intake of alcohol
overweight and obesity
a family history of heart disease
a history of preeclampsia during pregnancy
low activity levels
high stress and anxiety levels
leaky heart valves
The World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source mentions poverty and stress as two key factors contributing to a global increase in heart and cardiovascular disease.
Which foods can help manage cholesterol? Learn more here.
The treatment options will vary depending on the type of heart disease a person has, but some common strategies include making lifestyle changes, taking medications, and undergoing surgery.
The following sections look at some of these options in more detail.
Various medicationsTrusted Source can help treat heart conditions. The main options include:
Anticoagulants: Also known as blood thinners, these medications can prevent clots. They include warfarin (Coumadin) and the direct oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban.
Antiplatelet therapies: These include aspirin, and they can also prevent clots.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: These can help treat heart failure and high blood pressure by causing the blood vessels to expand. Lisinopril is one example.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers: These can also control blood pressure. Losartan is one example.
Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors: These can help unload the heart and interrupt the chemical pathways that weaken it.
Beta-blockers: Metoprolol and other medications in this class can reduce the heart rate and lower blood pressure. They can also treat arrhythmias and angina.
Calcium channel blockers: These can lower blood pressure and prevent arrhythmias by reducing the pumping strength of the heart and relaxing the blood vessels. One example is diltiazem (Cardizem).
Cholesterol-lowering medications: Statins, such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), and other types of drugs can help reduce levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the body.
Digitalis: Preparations such as digoxin (Lanoxin) can increase the strength of the heart’s pumping action. They can also help treat heart failure and arrhythmias.
Diuretics: These medications can reduce the heart’s workload, lower blood pressure, and remove excess water from the body. Furosemide (Lasix) is one example.
Vasodilators: These are medications to lower blood pressure. They do this by relaxing the blood vessels. Nitroglycerin (Nitrostat) is one example. These medications can also help ease chest pain. Learn more about vasodilation here.
A doctor will work with the individual to find a suitable option.
Sometimes, side effects occur. If this is the case, it may be necessary to review the medication regimen.
Undergoing heart surgery can help treat blockages and heart problems when medications are not effective.
Some common types of surgeryTrusted Source include:
Coronary artery bypass surgery: This allows blood flow to reach a part of the heart when an artery is blocked. Coronary artery bypass grafting is the most common surgery. A surgeon can use a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body to repair a blocked one.
Coronary angiography: This is a procedure that widens narrow or blocked coronary arteries. It is often combined with the insertion of a stent, which is a wire-mesh tube that allows easier blood flow.
Valve replacement or repair: A surgeon can replace or repair a valve that is not functioning correctly.
Repair surgery: A surgeon can repair congenital heart defects, aneurysms, and other problems.
Device implantation: Pacemakers, balloon catheters, and other devices can help regulate the heartbeat and support blood flow.
Laser treatment: Transmyocardial laser revascularization can help treat angina.
Maze surgery: A surgeon can create new paths for electrical signals to pass through. This can help treat atrial fibrillation.
Learn how long it takes to recover from bypass surgery here.
Some lifestyle measures can help reduce the risk of heart disease. These includeTrusted Source:
Eating a balanced diet: Opt for a heart-healthy diet that is rich in fiber and favors whole grains and fresh fruits and vegetables. The Mediterranean diet and the DASH diet may be good for heart health. Also, it may help to limit the intake of processed foods and added fat, salt, and sugar.
Exercising regularly: This can help strengthen the heart and circulatory system, reduce cholesterol, and maintain blood pressure. A person may wish to aim for 150 minutes of exercise per week.
Maintaining a moderate body weight: A healthy body mass index (BMI) is typically between 20 and 25. People can check their BMI here.
Quitting or avoiding smoking: Smoking is a major risk factor for heart and cardiovascular conditions.
Limiting alcohol intake: Women should consume no more than one standard drinkTrusted Source per day, and men should consume no more than two standard drinks per day.
Managing underlying conditions: Seek treatment for conditions that affect heart health, such as high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes.